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The ancient Roman period is dated between 753 BC and 400 AD and was established from a small settlement by the River Tiber. The settlement grew into a city named Rome. In the beginning, Rome was ruled by kings and led by seven kings before it changed into a republic. Rome as the Republic began in 510 BC and had a political and social construct focused on class division. The structure divided people into the elite group, which comprised senators and knights, and the rest were grouped as ordinary people. The class division saw to it that power and ruling went to the elite group while the rest were under their rule. Once in a while, the Republic would choose a dictator to lead them in conflict and challenging times.

It was during this period that the famous Julius Caesar rose into power. The rise of Julius Caesar was propelled by the conflict between the upper class and the lower class, where some politicians favored the traditional forms of ruling that favored the elite, and others were against it in favor of fair treatment of the lower course. Julius Caesar as a supporter of the 'populares' who were the lower class, took to power after winning a battle against his rival who had more men in his army. He became quite famous and was focused on reducing the gaps between the classes. However, he was assassinated only a few years into his ruling as his rivals feared he would become too powerful and do away with the senate.

After his assassination, his heir Gauis Julius Caesar, also known as Octavian, took to power and later became the first emperor of Rome as Augustus. The new imperial era saw significant expansion and prosperity as the empire extended through most of Europe, Northern Africa, and Asia Minor. The growth of the Roman Empire would lead to its split into the eastern and western kingdoms and later led to the dissemination of Roman rule. A few reasons were linked to the fall of the Roman Empire, including the rise of Christianity, which diminished the emperor's authority. When the empire grew too big, they split into Western and Eastern kingdoms, reducing power and control. The conflict between the emperor and the senate was also linked to the empire's fall.

There were also economic issues that contributed to the downfall of the empire. The increased slave labor, afforded mainly by the elite, created an economic imbalance affecting the familiar farmers who could not afford slave labor. These farmers had to pay high rates for labor, yet they were already at a financial disadvantage compared to the wealthy elite. The farmers ended up selling their lands to the elite, who could afford free labor and produce products on large scales. The economic imbalance led to the loss of assets and jobs for the lower class while the rich continued to acquire more wealth. Another reason attributed to the empire's fall was greed among the elite. The senators and other elites who had accumulated massive wealth lived extravagant lives at the expense of the empire's revenues.
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