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The medieval period which occurred in the middle ages, is also considered the dark ages in European history. Petrarch, an Italian scholar, coined the term dark age to represent the period when Europe experienced an intellectual, economic, and cultural decline. The medieval period began after the fall of the Roman Empire. The decline of the Roman Empire brought about the stagnation of culture where the Roman culture, which the Greeks influenced, began to fade. The onset and expansion of Christianity led to the decline of the blended Greco-Roman civilization as religious restrictions dominated. There was also a decline in intellectual development, which was frowned upon by Christianity and deemed not to align with the teachings of the religion.

The fall of the Roman Empire gave Christianity the chance to grow, leading the Church to become a mighty religious and political power. The Church as a new political institution brought about the rise of monasticism which remained influential until 1400AD. Kings and queens who ruled the monarchs drew their power and authority from the Church. These monarchs could not monopolize power like the Roman Empire because all their power was authorized and legitimized by the Church. The existence of a pope and the papacy ensured that the power remained with the Church. The medieval period also led to intellectual decline as the Church suppressed scientists and their knowledge development. They made many attempts to stop scientific progress, especially in Western Europe. In comparison with the Islamic world, the Christian world progressed slowly in this period, especially in mathematics and sciences. A Persian astronomer later introduced the concepts of algebra and linear and quadratic equations to Europe.

The medieval period was also marked by war, especially in the reign of Charles the Great, also called Charlemagne. He engaged his military into war with the Muslims, Lombards, Bavarians, and Saxons to expand his empire during his period. The pope later crowned him as the Holy Roman Emperor. In a bid to maintain his high profile, Charlemagne continued to develop a centralized state and popularized Roman culture through architecture. He also contributed to education by developing standard handwriting, which was the basis of books and documents production. One of the notable events of this period includes the Plague, which occurred after ships sailing the Black Sea brought back diseases to Europe. These diseases would later kill many European, which contributed to the adverse events of this period.

The medieval period was critical because it prepared for the renaissance, which was noted as the enlightenment era. The period after the dark ages was characterized by the need for more remarkable human development in all areas, including politics, social, art, education, and cultural elements. The need for enlightenment would not have been born without the existence of the dark ages.
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