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The Victorian Era or the Victorian age is when Queen Victoria reigned. Her reign lasted for 64 years, from 1837 to 1901, with many revolutions happening in Britain. Britain underwent the Industrial Revolution during the Victorian era with machines invented for factory use, making work more accessible. The invention of machines in the factories in the Victorian era increased trading due to the availability of fabric in bulk. Life in the era changed quickly, noting that the people and cities became crowded due to the industrial and steam train revolution. The invention of the iron steam train made it easy for people to travel to places faster than they could before the Victorian era. During the Victorian era, the invention of the telegraph and the telephone saw individuals getting in touch more quickly and easy across the Atlantic Ocean, with people having not to write letters during important messaging. The Victorian era saw people first use electricity with electrically fitted streetlights, buildings, and villages first marked in the United Kingdom. Half of the people in the Victorian era who resided in Britain lived in cities, with the beginning of the Victorian era marked with people living in the country. The Victorian age saw the British Empire become the first to develop to be the primary global industrial power generating country, marked with the global coal, textiles, steel, and iron production.

The Victorian era indicated the revolutionary advances made in arts and sciences, becoming the focal point of the world we view today. Doctors in this era transitioned from traditional and mysticism towards science-based approaches through the adaption of the germ theory of disease, which led to modern medicine and acted as a pioneer to epidemiology research. The education reforms in the era saw the British education population approaching universal literacy, which allowed a vast population to be educated. Due to a large literate population, towards the end of the Victorian era saw an increment of the well-educated population with the booming of all reading materials market upsurging. Politically, the agenda was liberal with various shifts in political social reforms, and the franchise increased. Demographic changes experienced in the Victorian era saw population increase, although Britain experienced a population decrease in 1901 due to emigration and the great famine. British relations in the Victorian era with other great powers were driven by antipathy with Russia, with international free trade maintained through industrial supremacy and the country’s naval. During the Victorian period, British embarked on its world expansion in Asia and Africa, making British the largest empire in the history of the world. The revolutionary transformations in the Victorian era resulted in too many changes in the world with birth. They spread political movements, most remarkably liberalism, organized feminism, and socialism. The Victorian era marked the resistance to the rationalism used to define the Georgian period, increasing acceptance of romanticism and mysticism regarding social values, arts, and religion. The era saw increased innovations that played a significant role in Britain's power and prosperity.
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